Download Advances in Pharmacology by Silvio Garattini and Parkhurst A. Shore (Eds.) PDF

By Silvio Garattini and Parkhurst A. Shore (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0120329042

ISBN-13: 9780120329045

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Electrophysiological studies do not provide independent objective data which substitute for subjective estiniation of pain, according to Keele and Ariiistrong (1964). Kinins may be involved in causing pain in several ways. Bradykinin or a siniilar peptide is released during painful stiniulation; kiniiis occur in certain animal venoms (see Section IV,E,3). In addition, under painful condit ions tissues can be inore sensitive to bradykinin, and, finally, bradykinin has been shown to act on nervous elements which are supposed to be pain receptors in the viscera and elsewhere.

Smooth Muscles and Assay Kinins were first characterized by using crude kallidin and crude bradykinin preparations as sources of peptides. , 1950) to contract the isolated guinea pig ileum. 9% impurities, thus less active material than a laboratory reagent would have as contamination. Kinins are mainly hypotensive; they contract isolated smooth muscles but relax rat duodenum or hen’s rectal caecum. They increase capillary permeability and cause pain (Schachter, 1964). Kinins are frequently assayed on isolated smooth muscle preparations.

Later it was noted that kallikrein can also block the vasoconstriction caused by norepinephrine in the skin (Papenberg and Hensel, 1959). Epinephrine antagonizes the action of kallikrein on the isolated cat intestine, dog intestine, or cat uterus (Werle and Flosdorf, 1938). The antagonistic effect of kallikrein against vasoactive agents, including BaClz and histamine, has been studied on the perfused hind leg of the rabbit, on the Langendorff’s heart preparation, and on smooth niuscle preparations (Tripod and Meier, 1958).

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