By Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele
Content material: creation; half I. ANALYTICAL equipment: advent; tools of Visualisation; Vibrational spectroscopy; X-Ray tools; Nuclear recommendations; equipment of separation; Mass spectrometry; Electrochemical ideas; half II. fabrics: Ceramics and enamels; Glass; Stone; Gemstones/minerals; Obsidian; Pigments and dyes; Icons and work; Metals / corrosion; Biomaterials; Resins, bitumens, tar, coal; Ivory and bones; wooden; Textiles; modern fabrics; half III: QUESTIONS: id; Authentication; know-how of construction; Provenancing; relationship; Degradation and conservation; nutritional reconstruction; precis; Index
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37. Besides, mosaicking of the individual images is needed whenever a high resolution is essential or large objects have to be imaged. Often, the processing software also operates the whole imaging system. Depending on the aim of the imaging and hardware applied, this software enables the coregistration of individual images, the reconstruction of an accurate colour image, reduces the dimensionality of the data (often by a principal component analysis or PCA), clusters or distinguishes pixels based on their spectral characteristics and identifies material from their spectral signatures.
Often, a standard or longer focal length lens is used to minimise most geometric deformations. For standard photography of the reflected visible radiation, daylight can be used. However, since even diffuse materials have some geometric sensitivity to lighting, the best results can be achieved using studio lighting with soft boxes, diffusing umbrellas and other light modifiers. 2 Applications Colour plays a very important role in our daily life. It fascinates artists as it adds enormously to aesthetic appreciation and can invoke feelings, thoughts and emotions.
In practice, this constrains two different filters to successful fluorescence photography: firstly, an appropriate exciter/excitation filter must be placed over the light source to make sure the latter only emits the appropriate radiation. As an example, visible-induced NIR fluorescence photography generally uses a blue/green pass filter to prevent the output of any infrared photons (obviously, the same can be accomplished with a monochromatic source such as LEDs). Secondly, a barrier filter on the lens must make sure that only the fluorescence is recorded and not the much more intense portion of reflected incident radiation.