By Adriel R. Bonilla
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Extra resources for Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives
2008). Several recommendations were made by 60 academic and industrial scientists during a recent EU-PROSAFE workshop. The participants suggested that the MIC distributions of LAB and Antibiotic Resistance and Probiotics 27 other relevant species should be assessed according to the PROSAFE reference method or other comparable and standardized methods. , 2008). The Global Epidemiology of Antibiotic-Resistant Probiotic Strains The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is complex and dynamic. However, there have been very few outbreaks caused by LAB and hence less emphasis has been given to systematic studies that investigate the acquired antibiotic resistance in LAB.
Other probiotic selection criteria that must be taken into consideration include the survival and persistence in the host, safety and technological suitability. Figure 1 illustrates some of the factors that contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and the roles of probiotics in preventing and treating the infection. Figure 1. Factors contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance and the roles of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic Resistance and Probiotics 13 Non-Antibiotic Resistance as a Criterion for Probiotics Although most probiotics are known as “Generally Regarded As Safe” (GRAS) due to their long history of safe use, their potential negative side effects are not zero (Mathur and Singh, 2005).
The inherent resistance of bifidobacteria to neomycin, nalixidic acid and polymycin B was reported by Miller and Finegold in 1976. This was further proven by Lim et al. (1993) when they assayed 37 natural bifidobacteria isolates against 18 different antibiotics. In another study, a total of 26 strains of Streptococcus cemoris and 12 strains of Streptococcus lactis were challenged with 18 antibiotics was performed by Orberg and Sandine in 1985. The authors found that all strains were resistant to trimethoprim and almost all strains were resistant to sulfathiazole, while resistance to other antibiotics were species-dependent.