By Peter V. Hobbs
FROM THE PUBLISHERAerosol and clouds play vital roles in picking out the earth's weather, in ways in which we're basically starting to understand. along side molecular scattering from gases, aerosol and clouds ensure partly what fraction of sun radiation reaches the earth's floor, and what fraction of the longwave radiation from the earth escapes to house. This booklet offers an summary of the most recent examine on atmospheric aerosol and clouds and their results on international weather. matters reviewed contain the direct and oblique results of aerosol on weather, the radiative homes of clouds and their results at the Earth's radiation stability, the incorporation of cloud results in numerical climate prediction versions, and stratospheric aerosol and clouds.
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Hence, compared with this alternative, there is a cost saving of about $350/tCO2 associated with reducing emissions. However, without capture of CO2 in either process, the lower emissions of CNG mean that use of FT diesel increases CO2 emissions. Comparisons have also been made of the abatement costs compared with conventional fuels. DISCUSSION The well to wheels approach identifies the high leverage stages within the fuel cycle that can be targeted for improvement. However, it is a 'single point' method that does not take into account the uncertainties in each stage.
E. g. alcohols) to hydrocarbons, and (c) to saturate olefins. 47 The cost assessments are summarised in Table 2 (costs are at 10% discount rate, 90% load factor, cost of CO2 storage not included). 5/GJ added to the cost of natural gas. Capture of COa adds approximately $3-4/barrel to the product cost. The cost of avoiding CO2 emissions, at approximately $25/tCO2, compares favourably with the cost of reducing emissions in power generation by capturing CO2. However, although CO2 emissions can be reduced by as much as 90% in this way, most of the carbon (75%) still leaves the plant in the product stream.
Data on R&D time periods were collected through a questionnaire to experts of various elemental technologies for realizing these CO2 capture technologies. The collected data were used to evaluate the CO2 capture technology R&Ds analytically, and we estimated the total R&D times and success probabilities for realizing the technologies. Also found were the elemental technologies in which additional R&D investments should be made for accelerating the total R&D times cost-effectively. The obtained results are suggestive to make rational and effective R&D investment strategies for CO2 capture technologies in the near future.